62 For discussion of the importance and difficulty of measuring compliance with international conventions, see Downs, George W., Rocke, David M. &Barsoom, Peter N., Is the Good News About Compliance Good News About Cooperation?, 50 Int`l Org. 379 (1996). In order to distinguish between agreements approved a posteriori by Congress and other types of executive agreements, the data remains based on Hathaway`s collection of authorization laws. Hathaway compiled the most comprehensive list of laws of Congress between 1980 and 2000, which can reasonably be interpreted as authorizing previous agreements between Congress and the executive branch. This list includes nine legislative acts. Footnote 73 I manually insert each of these acts and then search the TIF data for executive agreements that can reasonably be interpreted as approved by one of the statutes. Footnote 74 This approach identifies fifty-two ex-post agreements between Congress and the Executive of 5,443 agreements between 1982 and 2000. Figure 3 shows the estimated cumulative survival and hazard curves for the preferred model (5), one of which corresponds to a contract and an executive agreement. Digital koviatres have been centered around their average.
For categorical variables, the most common value is used. Footnote 100 32 Borchard, Edwin, The Proposed Constitutional Amendment on Treaty-Making, 39 AJIL 537, 538 (1945) (description of the rise of the executive agreement as „interference with the occupation of the contract appeal“); Berger, Raoul, The Presidential Monopoly of Foreign Relations, 71 Moi. L. Rev. .